Management is a necessary part for everybody, It may be the personal life or the organization. It helps you to achieve in life your targets. It is the tool behind every successful organization.It is a set of principles that help in functioning of planning,organizing, directing and controlling, and the application of these principles to achieve organizational goals.
The term Management is used in different ways. Since it is a new subject and applied in almost every subject. Its concept and principles are very popular in subjects like economics, sociology, statistics, etc. Every organization uses it according to its requirements.
Good Management leads to success and satisfaction.Librarian are the mangers who utilise the principles of management and improve the efficiency of library’ services.
According to Glueck, “Management is the effective utilization of human and material resources to achieve the enterprise’s objectives.”
Mary Follett defined Management as “The art of getting things done through people”.
According to G.Edward Evans,”Management means to control and direct the operation of an organisation or sub-divison of a larger unit.”
According to Frederick W.Taylor, “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do in the best and cheapest way”.
Management used in three different ways
Management as a Discipline
A discipline generally refers to the subject and its concept. Management as a subject includes concepts and principles, which helps organizations in managing. Management is itself treated as a science subject since it is applied to manage an organization or anything.
Management as a group of people
The group denotes the staff of an organization. Group, means lots of staff who work and performs the managerial function in organization. There are two groups of people in organization. One group who acts as managers and other group are staffs who works in an organization.
Management as a Process
The process means the scientific and systematic method of handling activities. This process is shown with a diagram at different stages to achieve success. The Goal is analyzed and a tailor-made method is constructed for the achievement of the objective. The process or method includes all the steps and activities involved. It is the process of getting things done by workers.
The manager makes policies and implements them. It requires oral and written communication with the workers. Managers communicate with staff and tell them the process, how it will be done. So success is achieved by effective communication
It also applies to get solutions to the problems faced during work. Management by the system means identifying problems and getting the required action to solve it.
It evaluates the progress from time to time. This evaluation brings the results achieved by implementing that process. So these results determine the value of management.
Management wants all its staff of the organization, to participate in all the works which it commands. It also gives equal opportunities in the decision-making process. Its participation among workers creates trust in them.
Its main motive should be to inspire and motivate its workers so that they can do work efficiently. It should encourage and put rewards so that the enthusiasm level of workers gets increased. This will help them to achieve targets.
Characteristics of Management
It is a systematic process where planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling are used by the manager.
It comes with solution at the time of conflict and problems.
It helps in achieving the targets and goals of the organization.
It helps in organizing the work.
It integrates the human and other resources together.
It is a group process and not done in isolation.
It is a process where policy are formulated and implemented.
It is a skill and applied for getting work done in effective way.
It is necessary for the running the organization smoothly.
It motivates and inspires workers.
Its concept and principles are used in whole world’s organization.
Management vs. Administration
Some thinkers have suggested that Management and administration are two different subjects. But some thinkers have come to the conclusion that there is no difference between Management and Administration. So every thinker has its own thoughts related to this topic. These are the following three approaches:
Administration is above management
One of the classical thinkers like Oliver Sheldon, whose opinion is that the administration basically relates to policy formulation. On the other hand, Management relates to the implementation of that policy. So both these activities are different.
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Administration is a part of Management
There is another thinker like Brech, whose opinion is that management is itself a subject which deals comprehensively and administration is part of it. He thinks that Administration is a section or subordinate of management. So Administration is not a different independent subject rather part of management. But this thought is different from the Classical thinkers.
Management and administration are the same
This is the third approach, where people think that management and administration are the same. It is popular belief as both are having the same functions and principles. Henry Fayol, a thinker of management and administration, had the opinion that both are the same.
Thus clearly said that there is no difference between management and administration. But it differs from organization to organization and countries to countries.
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